The U.S. International Trade Commission, the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the World Bank and the Office of the Chief Economist of Global Affairs Canada found that the final agreement, if ratified, would yield positive economic results to all signatories, while a heterodox analysis by two Tufts University economists concluded that the agreement would have a negative impact on signatories.     ISDS cannot ask governments to overturn local laws (contrary to the World Trade Organization) that violate trade agreements, but may award financial damages to investors affected by these laws.  As noted by the Office of the United States Trade Representative, isds requires specific infringements and does not allow companies to sue solely for ”loss of profits.”  Chinese Premier Li Keqiang celebrated the signing of the agreement in a speech at the summit, saying: ”The signing of the RCEP is not only a milestone in East Asian regional cooperation, but also a victory for multilateralism and free trade.” The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), also known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, was a proposed trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam and the United States, signed on February 4, 2016. After new U.S. President Donald Trump withdrew the U.S. signature from the TPP in January 2017, the agreement could not be properly ratified and did not enter into force. The other countries negotiated a new trade agreement called the Trans-Pacific Partnership Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement, which contains most of the provisions of the TPP and came into force on December 30, 2018. The Peterson Institute for International Economics argues that ”the ISDS provisions in the TPP are a significant improvement over previous agreements.”  PiIE notes that the ISDS mechanism in the TPP complies with environmental, health and safety rules; Ensure transparency in litigation procedures and eliminates shopping in the forum.  PIIE asserts that some of the innovations contained in the TPP`s ISDS rules ”are generally rejected by the U.S.
business community.”  Piie asserts that ISDS rules are necessary because they stimulate investment: ”Empirical evidence has shown that contracts, including these provisions, have a positive impact on foreign direct investment flows between signatory countries.”  PIIE challenges the assertion that ISDS ”lacks integrity to arbitrators” and finds that arbitrators take an oath of impartiality and elect both parties in a case to arbitrators.  PiIE agrees that secrecy has gone too far in many ISDS cases, but notes that ”TPP negotiators have opened up greater transparency to these criticisms” and ISDS cases.  ”The economic benefits of the agreement may be marginal for Southeast Asia, but there are some interesting trade and customs dynamics for Southeast Asia,” said Nick Marro of the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).